Title      : MSc Tech 202 Surface and Groundwater Hydrology
Subject      : Environmental Science and Technology
copyright © 2018   : Karnataka State Open University
Author      : KSOU
Publisher      : Karnataka State Open University
Chapters/Pages      : 16/197
Total Price      : Rs.      : 0
 
 
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Distribution of Water on Earth Total views (423)  
Where is Earth 's water located and in what forms does it exist? You can see how water is distributed by viewing these bar charts. The left- side bar shows where the water on Earth exists; about 97 percent of all water is in the oceans. Th e middle bar shows the distribution of that three percent of all Earth's water that is fres hwater. The majority, about 69 percent, is locked up in glaciers and ......
Pages: 12
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Introduction to Hydrology Total views (423)  
Hydrology means the science of water. It is the science that deals with the occurrence, circulation and distribution of water of the earth and earth's atmosphere. As a branch of earth science, it is concerned with the water in streams and lakes, rainfall and snowfall, snow and ice on the land and water occurring below the earth's surface in the pores of the soil and rocks. In a general sense, hyd ......
Pages: 10
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Hydrological Cycle Total views (409)  
The movement of water on the earth's surface and through the atmosphere is known as the hydrologic cycle. Water is taken up by the atmosphere from the earth's surface in vapour form through evaporation. It may then be moved from place to place by the wind until it is condensed back to its liquid phase to form clouds. Water then returns to the surface of the earth in the form of either liquid (rain ......
Pages: 18
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Characteristics of Water in Various Sources Total views (406)  
Rain water has various characteristics that enable typed water. Rain-water contains small but measurable concentrations of many elements derived from the dissolution of airborne particulate matter and produced by equilibration of rain -water with atmospheric gases.
Pages: 6
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Aquifers and Confining Beds Total views (339)  
In the view of ground-water occurrence, all rocks that underlie the Earth's surface can be classified either as aquifers or as confining beds. An aquifer is a rock unit that will yield water in a usable quantity to a well or spring. (In geologic usage, "rock" includes unconsolidated sediments). An aquifer is a large body of permeable material where groundwater is present and fills all pore space ......
Pages: 7
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Groundwater Hydrology Total views (343)  
Ground-water hydrology is the subdivision of the science of hydrology that deals with the occurrence, movement, and quality of water beneath the Earth's surface. It is interdisciplinary in scope in that it involves the application of the physical, biological, and mathematical sciences. It is also a science whose successful application is of critical importance to the welfare of mankind. Because g ......
Pages: 12
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Ground Water Flow Total views (333)  
Aquifers transmit water from recharge areas to discharge areas and thus function as porous conduits (or pipelines filled with sand or other water-bearing material). The factors controlling ground-water movement were first expressed in the form of an equation by Henry Darcy, a French engineer, in 1856.
Pages: 16
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Groundwater Problems Total views (333)  
Both wells and springs serve as sources of ground-water supply. However, most springs having yields large enough to meet municipal, industrial, and large commercial and agricultural needs occur only in areas underlain by cavernous limestones and lava flows. Therefore, most ground-water needs are met by withdrawals from wells. The response of aquifers to withdrawals from wells is an important topi ......
Pages: 15
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Water Quality and Standards Total views (349)  
Water quality is a term used here to express the suitability of water to sustain various uses or processes. Any particular use will have certain requirements for the physical, chemical or biological characteristics of water ; for example limits on the concentrations of toxic substances for drinking water use, or restrictions on temperature and pH ranges for water supporting animals. Consequently, ......
Pages: 15
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Potable Water Quality Total views (349)  
Potable water must be free of anything that would degrade human performance. Further, it should not damage the materials used in its transportation and storage. Potable Water must be suitable for maintaining human health (personal hygiene and medical treatment). Water quality standards give a basis for selecting or rejecting water intended for human use. These standards provide minimum accepted va ......
Pages: 13
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Water Pollution Parameters Total views (347)  
The quality of drinking water is a universal health concern. Water is essential for life, but it can and does transmit diseases in countries in all continents - from the poorest to the wealthiest. It can be classified into three types as domestic pollution, industrial and agricultural pollution. These pollution parameters like major cations and anions can be analysed with the help guideline values ......
Pages: 11
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Water Pollution Total views (346)  
Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies (lakes, rivers, oceans, groundwater) caused by human activities. Although natural phenomena such as volcanoes, storms, earthquakes etc. also cause major changes in water quality· and the ecological status of water, these are not deemed to be pollution. Water pollution has many causes and characteristics. Increases in nutrient load ......
Pages: 14
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Watershed Management Total views (423)  
As the international development goals have widened from merely increasing food production to include poverty reduction and environmental sustainability, protecting the environment is a big challenge for developing nations, qnq greater emphasis should be given to check the exploitation of the natural resources base. Soil erosion and land degradation coupled with declining per capita availability o ......
Pages: 9
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Water Harvesting Total views (426)  
The problem of water shortage in arid and semi-arid regions is one of low rainfall and uneven distribution throughout the season, which makes rain fed agriculture a risky enterprise. Therefore new interest came up in recent decades to evaluate traditional water management techniques most of them being simple sure to implement and of low capital investment. The classical References of irrigation wa ......
Pages: 10
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The Indian River Systems Total views (423)  
The Indian River Systems can be divided into four categories - the Himalayan, the rivers traversing the Deccan Plateau, the Coastal and those in the inland drainage basin. The Himalayan rivers are perennial as they are fed by melting glaciers every summer. During the Monsoon, these rivers assume alarming proportions. Swollen with rainwater, they often inundate villages and towns in their path. Th ......
Pages: 17
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Planning and Management of Water Resource Total views (427)  
One of the greatest challenges facing humankind is the concept of sustainable development, which is related to economic development, water scarcity, and environmental degradation. This concept, proposed a decade ago, offers a scientific framework to keep economic development sustainable without jeopardizing the ecosystem. Recently, the issue concerning sustainable water resources management has a ......
Pages: 12
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