Strength of Material is an important subject in the curriculum of Civil Engineering and Architecture Students of Diploma and degree course. The book is focused mainly for the students of various universities all over INDIA. the language of the book is simple and text is elaborated with suitable examples and sketches where ever required.

Force is an external agency which changes or tends to change the state of rest or motion of a body. Force is represented in magnitude and direction so it is a vector quantity.

The algebraic sum of all forces in y axis i.e vertical forces about any section of the beam is shear force. While calculating shear force, forces are considered either from L.H.S or R.H.S of the section. In this chapter the sign conventions are upward force positive and downward force negative and in all examples L.H.S of section is considered.

When a body moves or tends to move over another body then a force is developed to oppose this motion at the surface of contact. This force which apposes the movement is called frictional force or friction.

When a load is applied on a elastic body it will deform but the particles of material will try to resist this deformation and a state will reach when resisting force and applied force are same as a effect the further deformation is stopped.

When a beam is imposed with load it is likely to bent or deform when subjected
to bending moment or shear force. The process of deformation or bending stops when every section reacts with resistance i.e. stresses. The stresses which is resisting bending moment are called bending stresses and stresses resisting shear force are called shearing stresses.

When a beam is loaded, shear force and bending moment is produced. To resist shear force, internal stresses in beam section are induced. These internal stresses in beam section are shear stresses.

When a beam carries transverse loading it bends which can be sagging or hogging. The form of curve to which the beam bends after loading is called elastic curve or deflection curve. Exact value of deflection is required in many designs and also to check the dimensional accuracy of various machine elements. Deflection at any point on the axis of the beam is the distance between its position before
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Before designing any structure it is necessary to have knowledge about various types of loads which are imposed on any structure. Depending on worst combination of load, structure is designed by considering suitable amount of factor of safety which differs from structure to structure, its purpose and basically worst load calculated.

Column is a compression member, which is subjected to axial force or eccentric force, which causes either direct stress or direct and bending stress. If load on column is excess then the column is likely to buckle and this nature of buckling differs from its end conditions. A column can be either short, medium or long depending on mode of its failure. A column which fails due to crushing is called
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