In the outermost orbit of the atoms of conductors, there are free
electrons which can be dislodged from the parent atom by the application
of an external force. The continuous drift of electrons in a conductor on
the application of an external force in a particular direction, constitutes
the flow of current. The rate at which the electric charge is transferred
across a point in a conductor is
......

Let us take up the case of a rectangular coil of N turns rotating
in the anticlockwise direction, with an angular velocity of radians per
second in a uniform magnetic field as shown in Fig 3.1. Let the time be
measured from the instant of coincidence of the plane of the coil with the
X-axis. At this instant maximum flux, max, links with the coil. As the coil
rotates, the
......

All matter consists of fundamental constituents or elements, the
tiniest particles of which are called atoms.
The atom consists of a central mass called the nucleus, around which
tiny, negatively charged particles, called electrons, revolve in fixed orbits,
just as satellites revolve around a planet.

A PN Junction is formed between a sample of N-type and a sample
of P-type semiconductor, thus constituting a diode, permitting easy flow of
current in one direction but restraining the flow in the opposite direction
(in other words, it possesses the properties of a rectifier).

In day-to-day transactions we use the familiar decimal number
system with its 10 digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. These numerals
are known as Arabic numerals. As fingers are the most convenient tools
nature has produced, human beings use them In counting. Hence, the
decimal system followed naturally from their usage.

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