After studying this unit, students will be able to define functions and explain limits. They will also be able to determine limits under different methods and explain continuity of methods.

Differential calculus tries to establish a measure of changes in the variables of a function with mathematical precision. The differential co-efficient is called the derivative. It is the limit of the ratio of the increment of the function, to the increment of the independent variable, when the latter increment varies and approaches zero as a limit. Differential calculus is widely applied in solvi ......

After studying this unit, students will be able to explain cost functions, revenue functions and profit functions.They will also be able to identify the relationship between elasticity and marginal revenue and apply differentiation in business problems.

After Studying this unit, students will be able to explain and outline the conditions for Maxima & Minima. They will also be able to calculate the point of production - where the cost will be minimum.

Random Variable is a variable generally associated with the outcomes of a
random experiment with definite probability. An understanding of the outcomes is necessary when a particular experiment or decision is taken in any organization.

After going through this unit, students will be able to define and explain the meaning of Expectation and Variance. They will also be able to summarize the theorems of expectations and describe the effect of variance in terms of expectations.

In this unit and the following two units we shall study the uni-variate
probability distributions.· Binomial and Poisson distribution are discrete probability distributions and the Normal distribution is a continuous probability distribution. In Binomial distribution, there would be dichotomous classification of events.

Poisson distribution is considered as a limiting case of binomial distribution. Poisson distribution derived by 'French mathematician Simon D. Poisson' in 1837. This distribution is a discrete probability function. Interestingly herewith the large number of experiments conducted, the probability of success would be very small.

Normal distribution is a continuous theoretical distribution in statistics. The
normal distribution was discovered by De-moivre, an English mathematician in 1733. He problems arising in the game of chance. Normal distribution is also known as Gaussian distribution.

Statistical enquiry implies search for knowledge according to the statistical
techniques. The enquiry however is used only to those subjects which can be measured quantitatively. It is possible to know statistically as to whether the distribution of wealth in a particular country is equitable or not, for a simple reason that both wealth and concept of equity are capable of being expressed numeric ......

After studying this unit, students will be able to calculate mean, median, mode and describe how data bunch up. They will also be able to determine the appropriateness of different measures of central tendency.

After reading this unit, students will be able to understand the meaning of dispersion, types of measures and applications of dispersions. They will also be able to learn , use range variance and standard deviation.

After reading this unit, students will be able to understand the specific relationship between two or more variables. They will also be able to use scatter disgram, correlation and regressive analysis to visualize and estimate the relationship.

A set is a collection of well defined objects. According to Cantor, "a set is
a collection of definite, well distinguished objects of perception or thought". Thus a set is any collection of objects such. that given an object, it is possible to determine whether that object belongs to the set under consideration.

After studying this unit, students will be able to identify the areas of application of Set theory and understand the concept of Venn diagrams. They will also be able to solve the problems using formula and use the Venn diagrams to solve the business problems.

The term probability is statistics refer to the chance of occurrence of an
event among a large number of possibilities. The chance of occurrence of an event may be absolutely certain. When the probability of an event is absolutely certain,the probability is said to be unity or 1.

After studying this unit, students will be able to explain complete enumeration survey and describe sampling. They will also be able to discuss the purpose and methods of sampling.

After studying this unit, students will be able to explain what is non-random sampling and access the significance non-random sampling. They will also be able to discuss various types of non-random sampling.

After studying this unit, students will be able to assess the meaning, importance of Tests of Hypothesis and to explain the procedure of Testing Hypothesis. They will also be able to identify various types of errors in Hypothesis testing and distinguish between type 1 and type 2 errors.

In this chapter students will discuss the x2 test which belongs to this category and the x2 (pronounced as Chi-square) test is based on x2
distribution which was first used by Karl Person in the year 1990.

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