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Title      : BGE- 11 Introduction to Physical Geography
Subject      : Geography
copyright © 2018   : Karnataka State Open University
Author      : KSOU
Publisher      : Karnataka State Open University
Chapters/Pages      : 24/326
Total Price      : Rs.      : 248
 
 
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Chapters
     
Introduction to Geography Total views (1126)  
Geography is a branch of knowledge and learning. It is an inter-disciplinary subject and focuses on the understanding of the physical environment of the earth, human activities and their interactive relationships. Some may ask this question, "It it necessary to study geography?" We live on the earth and our lives are affected by our surroundings in several ways. We depend on the resources provide ......
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
 
Origin of the Continents and Ocean Total views (1111)  
After the planet earth, came into existence, the continents and the oceans were formed. They are considered as relief features of the first order. The cause of their genesis is very much a mystery and is quite complex. It is therefore necessary to inquire into the mode of origin and evolution of these relief features. In this unit we will be studying about the unequal distribution of land and wate ......
Pages: 17
Price: Rs 12.75   
 
Structure and Composition of the Earth Total views (1097)  
The study of the structure and composition of the interior of the earth is a part of Geology. However its elementary knowledge is necessary for geographers because the nature and certain processes of their formation and the configuration of the relief of earth's surface largely depend on the nature, mechanism and magnitude of the endogenic forces, which originate in the interior of the earth. The ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
 
Rocks Total views (1093)  
We have studied in the previous lesson about the structure and composition of the Earth's interior. The outer-most part of the lithosphere is called crust. It is the most significant part of the earth. The materials of the lithosphere mainly include rocks, minerals and soils. The word 'lithosphere', in fact means 'sphere of rock' as the literal meaning of 'lithos' is rock. Among the materials of t ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Weathering of Rocks Total views (1093)  
The landforms on the Earth's surface are constantly changing due to the action of endogenetic (internal) and exogenetic (external) forces. The endogenetic forces of the earth create new landforms on the earth's surface; while on the other hand the exogenetic forces modify the existing surface landforms. Some exogenetic forces weaken and disintegrate the rocks in their original location. Others rem ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Volcanoes Total views (1090)  
Volcano is one of the most devastating natural hazards on the earth. Sudden explosion cause great damage and devastation. In the past the people explained violent volcanic eruptions by attributing them to the anger of the all-powerful gods who lived in the interior of the earth. The ancient Romans believed that the god of fire lived in Vulcan, a volcanic island to the north of Sicily. When he str ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Earthquakes Total views (279)  
Earthquake is one of the endogenic forces which has its source in the interior of the earth but has tremendous effect on the earth's surface. An earthquake is a sudden shaking or trembling of the earth's crust because of the movements in the interior of the earth. The movement is sudden and abrupt and short-lived but causes a lot of damage.
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Agents of Denudation-Work of River Total views (289)  
The river is one of the active agents of denudation that erodes, transports and deposits sediments on the earth's surface to produce erosional and depositional landforms. The other agents of denudation are ground water, wind, glaciers and sea waves. Rivers have the ability to erode the land over which they flow. The term fluvial is applied to the processes and landforms associated with the action ......
Pages: 14
Price: Rs 10.5   
 
Work of Glaciers Total views (279)  
Snow is one of the forms of precipitation and it occurs when the temperature is below freezing point when condensation takes place in the atmosphere. When you squeeze the powdery snow in your hand you can make a snowball out of it. The pressure of the hand converts the snowflakes into ice crystals. Similarly in regions where there is heavy snowfall, it gets heaped up layer by layer. The top layer ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Work of Wind Total views (280)  
The sand and the stones are the tools with which the wind sculptures out landforms. The work of the wind is important in deserts. Deserts are characterized by high temperature, excessive evaporation and little or no vegetation. In the past, deserts were considered to be created by winds alone. Today we know that water also plays an important part in producing the desert landforms. However, in this ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Work of Groundwater Total views (279)  
Groundwater is an important agent of denudation in limestone regions and it produces unique landforms, both surface landforms and underground landforms. The main factors which affect the percolation of water through the earth's surface are as follows: a) the amount and nature of rainwater and melt water; b) the slope of the land surface; c) the porosity of the rock layers; d) the rate of evaporati ......
Pages: 14
Price: Rs 10.5   
 
Major Landforms- Mountains, Plateaus and Plains Total views (282)  
The landforms on the earth's surface are a result of the interplay between the internal (endogenic) and the external (exogenic) forces. The internal forces are continuously elevating the earth's surface and the external forces are simultaneously cutting them down and renewing the land surface. The major landforms produced by these forces can be classified as mountains, plateaus and plains. We will ......
Pages: 14
Price: Rs 10.5   
 
Composition and Structure of the Atmosphere Total views (279)  
The vast expanse of air which envelops the earth's all-round is called atmosphere. The word Atmosphere is derived from the Greek word 'Atmos' means 'vapour' and 'Spharia' means 'sphere'. Hence, it is a gaseous sphere surrounding the earth. It is relatively a thin layer of odourless, tasteless and colourless gases (air), dust particles and water vapour surrounding the earth. Atmosphere is an integr ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Atmospheric Temperature-Vertical and Horizontal Distribution Total views (277)  
The heat received from the other celestial bodies as well as the interior of the earth is rather too insignificant to merit our attention. Even the atomic energy released through the disintegration of radioactive elements present in the earth's crust is not of any consequence from the view point of weather and climate. Thus, radiation from the Sun is the only source of energy for the atmosphere, ......
Pages: 16
Price: Rs 12   
 
Winds Total views (277)  
Wind is another important element of weather and climate. The horizontal movement of air is known as 'Wind'. It can be defined as 'air moving horizontally along the surface of the earth'. According to Trewartha 'Wind is simply air moving in a direction which is essentially parallel with the earth's surface'. In Meteorology, the term 'wind' refers to the horizontal movement of air relating to the ......
Pages: 17
Price: Rs 12.75   
 
Variable Winds Total views (278)  
In several occasions, Planetary and Periodic winds are disturbed in their path due to several reasons. Hence the wind starts to blow in a oval shape or cyclic manner known as Variable wind. It suddenly changes the sky conditions of a place. The origin, direction and effect of this wind over the weather conditions of a place are uncertain. Cyclones and Anticyclones are the types of variable winds. ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Water Vapour, Humidity, Clouds and Precipitation Total views (278)  
The significance of water as an atmospheric variable is a result of its unique physical properties. It is the most important constituent of air in deciding weather and climate. Water is the only one substance that exists as a gas (water vapour), liquid (water) and solid (ice) at different temperatures found at earth's surface. This unique property of water is changing from one form to another. It ......
Pages: 18
Price: Rs 13.5   
 
Submarine Topography Total views (279)  
Hydrosphere is one of the components of Physical Geography. It is extensive than Lithosphere over the surface. Eratosthenes made the first scientific attempt in determining the size of the earth. He believed the waters of the earth as forming two belts, one extending meridionally and the other equatorially around the globe, by dividing the globe into four sections called 'terra quadrifida'. The ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Temperature and Salinity of Ocean water Total views (279)  
Solar radiation is the source of temperature of ocean water. It is an important physical property of the ocean water. It is mostly controlling the movements of large masses of ocean water and their characteristics. The type and distribution of marine flora and fauna are depending on the distribution of temperature. The temperature decreases with increase in depth of ocean water.
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Ocean Currents Total views (282)  
The regular movement of ocean water from one part of the ocean to another is known as ocean current. The average speed of the ocean current is 2 to 10 km per hour. Ocean currents do not follow any straight route. The density of ocean water is depending on temperature and salinity of ocean water. The warm and less dense water from the equator moves over the surface towards the pole, while cold an ......
Pages: 14
Price: Rs 10.5   
 
Ocean Tides Total views (281)  
Tides are one of the most fascinating aspects of the ocean. Tides occur in every day and in every place of ocean. 'It is the periodic rise and fall of the sea level' or ' The regular rise and fall of sea level'. From the last three centuries, several great mathematicians have studied about Tides. It is generally accepted that the tide is caused primarily by the Universal Gravitation of matter. But ......
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
 
Maps and Scales Total views (284)  
Map land scales are very important tools of a geographer and therefore, without there tools, he is helpless like a pilot without his plane scale may be defined as the proportion of any length between two places on the map, to the actual distance between the two places in the field. These, when we peak of the scale being one centimeter to a kilometer, we mean that two points one centimeter apart o ......
Pages: 17
Price: Rs 12.75   
 
Latitude and Longitude Total views (292)  
Latitudes and Longitudes form a great net-work of reference lines on the globe. They are very useful to the navigators, aviators and the students of geography. In order to find out the location of places, the time and the temperatures of those places. Latitude and Longitude - Great Circle - Longitude and Time - Local Time - Standard Time - Indian Standard time - International Date Line.
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
 
Methods of Showing Relief Features and Weather Instruments Total views (286)  
Relief features are represented on maps by several methods. They attract the students of geography in order to find out the topography of a place. The relief maps are used by different people according to their requirements. The term relief indicates the variation in the nature of the land surface. It is used in a rather difference in elevations of the points. The term elevation denotes the heigh ......
Pages: 17
Price: Rs 12.75   
 


 
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