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Title      : MSGE-201 Climatology
Subject      : Geography
copyright © 2018   : Karnataka State Open University
Author      : KSOU
Publisher      : Karnataka State Open University
Chapters/Pages      : 16/171
Total Price      : Rs.      : 124
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Insolation Total views (210)  
The earth receives only a minute fraction of energy received by the sun. This insignificant solar radiation provides more than 99.9 percent of the energy that heats the earth. This radiant energy controls our weather and climate. The incoming solar radiation that strikes the earth is equal to 23 billion horse power!! The word 'Insolation' is nothing but the incoming solar radiation". The sun emits ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 0   
Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Temperature Total views (211)  
There are a number of factors that determine the horizontal distribution of temperature. There is a general decrease in temperature from the equator towards poles. The isotherms over certain part of the globe are closely spaced. While elsewhere they are widely spaced. There are other factors also affecting the distribution of the temperature like, a) Differential heating of land and water, b) Effe ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
Heat Budjet Total views (206)  
Absorption and re-emission of radiation at the earth's surface is only one part of an intricate web of heat transfer in the earth's planetary domain. Equally important are selective absorption and emission of radiation from molecules in the atmosphere. If the earth did not have an atmosphere, surface temperatures would be too cold to sustain life. If too many gases which absorb and emit infrared r ......
Pages: 7
Price: Rs 5.25   
Horizontal and Vertical Distribution of Pressure and Pressure Belts Structure Total views (206)  
Air pressure and winds are invisible elements which influences other weather elements in a significant way. Variations in air pressure from place to place are responsible for the movement of winds which serves as a means of transporting heat and moisture from one region to another. They also bring about changes in day today weather conditions. Besides, air pressure is all the more important in wea ......
Pages: 12
Price: Rs 9   
Cell Models: Hadley Models Total views (180)  
At about the time that Coriolis published his studies on rotating bodies, scientists were beginning to realize that Hadley's single convection cell model was too simple. Atmospheric pressure and wind measurements taken at many locations around the planet did not fit the predictions made by the Hadley model. Some important modifications in the Hadley model were suggested in the 1850s, therefore, by ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
Palmen Models Total views (178)  
Erik Herbel'. Palmen (August 31, 1898, Vaasa, Finland - March 19, 1985) was Finnish meteorologist. He worked at the University of Chicago in the Chicago school of meteorology on cyclones and weather fronts with Vilhelm Bjerknes. He contributed to the explanation of the dynamics of the jet stream and the analysis of data collected by radiosondes; his preprocessed and quality checked datasets were w ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
Polar Circulation of Air Total views (186)  
This unit examines how unequal surface heating and the rotation of the earth generate global circulation systems in the atmosphere and its consequences on weather phenomenon. Atmospheric circulation is one of the key factors driving regional changes in wind, temperature, precipitation, moisture and other climatic variables.
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Planetary Winds Total views (187)  
The horizontal movement of air along the earth 's surface is called a Wind. The vertical movement of the air is known as an air current. Winds and air current together comprise a system of circulation in the atmosphere. The movement and the speed of wind are affected by three main factors: • Pressure gradient, • Rotation of the Earth, • Friction of the Earth.
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Seasonal and Local Winds Total views (190)  
A wind in low-latitude climates that seasonally changes direction between winter and summer is called a monsoon, and is a typical example of seasonal winds. Monsoons usually blow from the land in winter (called the dry phase, because it carries cool, dry air), and to the land in summer (called the wet phase, because it carries warm, moist air), causing a drastic change in the precipitation and tem ......
Pages: 12
Price: Rs 9   
Tropical Cyclones and Thunderstroms Total views (188)  
Geographically tropical atmosphere lies between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn. But in meteorology, the boundaries of the tropical atmosphere are determined by the high pressure cells of the subtropics. There are various kinds of weather disturbances exist within the tropics. Great deals of variations are observed in weather elements like temperature, precipitation and pressure e ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
Temperate Cyclones (Extra Tropical Cyclones) Total views (174)  
Cyclones are low pressure system that occur in the middle latitudes. They are neither tropical. nor polar. Both are related with cold" warm and occluded fronts. Tropical Cyclones from in the tropics which can regenerate into extra-tropical cyclones on moving to higher latitudes.
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
Air Masses and Fronts Total views (175)  
An air mass is a large body of air with similar temperature and/or humidity. Air masses form in stable "source regions" such as in the sub tropics or near to the poles. Study of air mass provides an essential background for understanding the atmospheric disturbances. It brings about changes in day today weather particularly in mid latitudes. It plays a dominant role in producing different type of ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
Jet Streams and Anticyclones Total views (201)  
Jet streams are defined as swift geostropic air streams in the upper atmosphere that meanders in relatively narrow belts. These are the strong cores of upper level westerly winds which flow meandering path. It was towards the end of the Second World War that the existence of jet streams in the upper layer troposphere was made known to the meteorologists. During the Second World War American bomber ......
Pages: 14
Price: Rs 10.5   
Classification of Climate Koppens Classification Total views (202)  
The concepts of devising climate classes that combine temperature and precipitation characteristics, but of setting limits and boundaries fitted into known vegetation and soil distributions were actually carried out in 1918 by Dr. Wladimir Koppen of the University of Graz, in Austria. Koppen was both a climatologist and a plant geographer, so his main interest lay in finding climate boundaries tha ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
Classification of Climate: Thornthwait Classification Total views (206)  
Although Koppen's System is the most widely used climate classification system, there are several others that have been used as well. One of the more popular of these is the climatologist and geographer C.W. Thornthwaite's system. This method monitors the soil water budget for an area based on evapotranspiration and considers that along with total precipitation used to support an area's vegetation ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Global Warming and Climate Change Total views (202)  
Throughout Earth's history, the climate has fluctuated many times. Recently, scientists have become concerned that the Earth is becoming rapidly warmer. This warming will have effects on life across the planet. There are many possible causes to this climate change, some human and some natural. The true cause is likely a complex combination of factors that no one yet fully understands
Pages: 12
Price: Rs 9   

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