The real number system was known to mathematicians in the past that was used to solve algebraic equations. It therefore became necessary to extend the real number system to obtain necessary solutions to simple equations like x2+1 = 0, which could not be solved in the domain of real number. The equation becomes solvable if we introduce new quantities- square roots of negative number. An Italian mat......

The students who are admitted to second year through lateral entry scheme are supposed to be familiar with the notions of limits, continuity and the process of differentiating functions of a single independent variable. Therefore, in this chapter we shall continue our discussion with Successive Differentiation, Polar Curves, Taylor’s Series, Maclaurin’s Series and Partial Differentiation with some......

In this chapter we establish a few reduction formulae for integrals, double and triple integrals, special functions like Beta and Gamma functions and simple problems with standard limits, which have applications in physical and engineering problems and has great practical importance.

A large number of basic laws of nature in engineering mathematics, applied sciences etc., appear mathematically in the form of differential equations. The differential equations is the general goal of differential and integral calculus and the theory of differential equations has a very important role in mathematics for understanding physical sciences.

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