In a random experiment, the outcomes are governed by 'chance' and the sample space S of such a random experiment consists of all outcomes of the experiment. When these outcomes are non-numeric they can be quantified by assigning a real number to each of them. This assignment rule, known as the random variable (RV) provides a more compact description, power of abstraction and thus allows us to disc......

The theory of expectation of a random variable is of considerable importance, since it defines an average, as well as the mean square value and other expected values of a random variable. These expected values often represent important features, characteristics, or attributes of a random variable. One of the most widely known averages is the mean value or expected value.

The word information is very common in everyday language. Information transmission usually occurs through human voice (as in telephone, radio television etc.,), books, newspapers, letters etc. In all these cases a piece of information is transmitted from one place to another.

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