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Title      : MSCS -503 Computer Architecture
Subject      : Computer Science
copyright © 2018   : Karnataka State Open University
Author      : KSOU
Publisher      : Karnataka State Open University
Chapters/Pages      : 24/304
Total Price      : Rs.      : 224
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Basic Computer Organisation Total views (304)  
This unit is about the basic computer organization. It describes what a computer is, its types, its functional components, and how does these functional components work together as a system? It also gives you an overview of the basic operational concepts of computers which involves the functional components such as input, output, memory, arithmetic logic unit and control unit. The subsequent modul ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 0   
Performance of a Computer System Total views (297)  
This unit is about the performance of a computer system. The performance of a computer gives a measure as to how quickly a computer can execute programs. The speed at which a computer performs depends on its associated hardware and its machine language instructions. There are several factors that relate to the performance of computers and all such important factors are discussed in this unit. It ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Machine Instructions and Programs Total views (291)  
Unit -I and Unit -2 introduced the general concepts related to computer organization and the way a computer is made operational and also the issues related to its performance. In this unit, we shall see how numbers are represented in the binary number system. Addition and subtraction of signed numbers along with Overflow in Integer Arithmetical are also discussed with examples. This unit also desc ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
Memory Locations, Address and Operations Total views (291)  
So far in previous units, we saw the general concepts related to computer organization and the way a computer is made operational. In this unit, we shall see how memory locations are organized and addressed. More specifically, we shall look into the two basic types of assignments one, the big-endian and the other, the little-endian. Memory operations play a very important role in the process of ex ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Instructions, Instruction Sequencing and Addressing Modes Total views (196)  
After understanding the general concepts related to computer organization and the way a computer is made operational. In this unit, we shall see the various types of instruction; show how memory locations and CPU registers are addressed and the way in which sequences of instructions are brought from the main memory into the CPU, executed to perform a given task using a general-purpose machine.
Pages: 16
Price: Rs 12   
Assembly Language Total views (200)  
Machine instructions are represented by strings of 0's and 1's. Such patterns of 0's and 1's become cumbersome while programs are discussed or written. So, these patterns are represented and replaced by symbolic names. Some examples of symbolic names include Move, Add, Branch, 'Increment etc. When writing programs for a specific computer, the symbolic names are replaced by acronyms called mnemonic ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
Basic Input / Output Operations and Subroutines Total views (198)  
In the previous unit, we described assembly language programming. And we assumed that the data on which these instructions operate are already stored in memory. In this unit, we will see the means by which data gets transferred between the main memory and the peripheral or input / output devices. It is very to know about the input / output operations in a system since it significantly contributes ......
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
Machine Instructions and Encoding Total views (196)  
After understanding the general instructions such as Load, Store, Move, Add, Subtract, Increment, Decrement, Branch, Push, Pop, call and return, it is time to think on some additional instructions to carry out some special tasks. These instructions are supported by most of the modern processors. In this unit, we shall see the additional instructions such as logic instructions, shift and rotate ins ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
Accessing I/O Devices, Interrupts-Interrupt Hardware, Enabling and Disabling Interrupts Total views (199)  
One of the basic features of a computer is its ability to exchange data with other devices. This communication capability enables a human operator, for example, to use a keyboard and a display screen to process text and graphics. We make extensive use of computers to communicate with other computers over the Internet and- access information around the globe. In other applications, computers are le ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Handling Multiple Devices, Controlling Device Requests, Exceptions Total views (201)  
Let us now consider the situation where a number of devices capable of initiating interrupts are connected to the processor. Because these devices are operationally independent, there is no definite order in which they will generate interrupts. For example, device X may request an interrupt while an interrupt caused by device Y is being serviced, or several devices may request interrupts at exactl ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
Direct Memory Access, Buses, Interface Circuits Total views (199)  
The discussion in the previous sections concentrates on data transfer between the processor and I/O devices. Data are transferred by executing instructions such as Move DATAIN, RO An instruction to transfer input or output data IS executed only after the processor determines that the I/O device is ready. To do this, the processor either polls a status flag in the device interface or waits for th ......
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
Standard I/O Techniques- PCI BUS, SCSI BUS, USB Total views (199)  
The previous sections point out that there are several alternative designs for the bus of a computer. This variety means that I/O devices fitted with an interface circuit suitable for one computer may not be usable with other computers. A different interface may have to be designed for every combination of I/O device and computer, resulting in many different interfaces. The most practical solution ......
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
Basic Concepts,Semi-Conductor Ram Memories Total views (201)  
Memories are available in a wide range of speeds which range from 100ns to 10ns. Initially, they were very expensive than the magnetic core, which was used in the early computers. Due to the invention of VLSI design, the cost is very less. Hence, it is used extensively in implementing memories. In this section, let us discuss some issues related to memory system, their organizations, their differe ......
Pages: 17
Price: Rs 12.75   
Read Only Memories (ROM), Speed, Size and Cost Total views (198)  
Memory is an integral part of any system be it a computing system or a human system. Memory is central without which everything is nothing. In this unit, we study the different types of memories and their advantages.
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
Cache Memories Total views (198)  
Cache memory is an integral part of every system now. In this unit, we discuss the concepts related to cache memory, the need for it, their architecture, their working.
Pages: 18
Price: Rs 13.5   
Virtual Memories and Secondary Storage Total views (199)  
Virtual memory is another important concept related to memory organization. Till now, we have assumed that the addresses generated by the processor directly specify physical locations in the memory. This may not always be the case. For reasons that will become apparent that data may be stored in physical memory locations that have addresses different from those specified by the program.
Pages: 21
Price: Rs 15.75   
Addition and Subtraction of Signed Numbers Total views (198)  
In this unit, the logic circuits are used (0 implement arithmetic operations. The time needed to perform an addition operation affects the processor's performance. Multiply and divide operations, which require more complex circuitry than either addition or subtraction operations, also affect performance. Hence we present some of the techniques used in modern computers to perform arithmetic operati ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
Multiplication of Positive Numbers Total views (199)  
In this unit, a detail explanation of Multiplication of Positive numbers and Signed - Operand Multiplication is given and also about the Booth Algorithm, a technique that works equally well for both negative and positive multipliers. Evaluated Fast Multiplication and also Bit Pair Recoding of Multipliers and Sketched out Carry-Save Addition of Summands.
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
Integer Division Total views (200)  
In this unit, a detail explanation of Integer Division, Restoring Division and No restoring division is given. Arithmetic Operations on Floating Point Numbers and their Implementation is given with an example. In the previous topic, we have elucidated positive-number multiplication by relating the way the multiplication operation is done manually to the way it is done in a logic circuit. We use th ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
Logic Operations Total views (200)  
In this Unit, we have explained how to perform Arithmetic Operations on Floating-Point Numbers and their implementations In this topic, we _outline the general procedures for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of floating-point numbers. The rules we give apply to the single-precision IEEE standard formal. These rules specify only the major steps needed to perform the four, operati ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
Some Fundamental Concepts Total views (198)  
In this Unit, we focus on the processing unit, which executes machine instructions and coordinates the activities of other units. This unit is often called the Instruction Set Processor (ISP), or simply the processor. We examine its internal structure and how it performs the tasks of fetching, decoding, and executing instructions of a program. . The processing unit used to be called the central pr ......
Pages: 12
Price: Rs 9   
Execution of a Complete Instruction Total views (202)  
In this Unit we have learnt Execution Of A Complete Instruction and also Branch Instructions.
Pages: 6
Price: Rs 4.5   
Multiple Bus Organisation Total views (201)  
In this Unit, we will learn Multiple Bus Organization and also the control sequence for the instruction. We used the simple single-bus structure of Figure 2.1 to elucidate the basic ideas. The resulting control sequences in Figures 2.6 and 2.7 are quite long because only one data item can be transferred over the bus in a clock cycle.
Pages: 5
Price: Rs 3.75   
Hard - Wired Control Total views (203)  
In this Unit, we learn how Hardware is used for generating internal control signals, the microprogramming approach and Microprogram organization. To execute instructions, the processor must have some means of generating the control- signals needed in the proper sequence. Computer designers use a wide variety of techniques to solve this problem. The approaches used fall into one of two categories: ......
Pages: 25
Price: Rs 18.75   

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