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Title      : PDN-51 Principles of Human Nutrition
Subject      : Nutrition and Dietetics
copyright © 2018   : Karnataka State Open University
Author      : KSOU
Publisher      : Karnataka State Open University
Chapters/Pages      : 23/226
Total Price      : Rs.      : 166
 
 
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Chapters
     
Food,Nutrients, Non-Nutrients and Their Relation to Health Total views (197)  
Food is associated with satisfaction of hunger, love and affection. Food also helps to remember God, festivals, family or social functions. Food plays an important role in our life and provides health. Foods are the substances which you eat and drink everyday namely cereal and pulse preparations, vegetables fruits, milk, milk products, egg, meat and tea or coffee. Nutrition is a science of food ......
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 0   
 
Nutrition-Concept of Desirable Nutrition, Malnutrition, Under Nutrition and Over Nutrition Total views (193)  
We consume food every day. Food contains nutrients and other materials as mentioned in the earlier unit, and they help in maintaining health. After learning about nutrients and their functions, perhaps you may be curious to know about health disorders which may occur due to deficiency of nutrients.
Pages: 6
Price: Rs 4.5   
 
Digestion, Absorption and Regulation of Food Intake Total views (197)  
You consume food every day. You may forget about that, but what ever food you eat or drink, they enter into your mouth, travels through food pipe, then enter into stomach, they are broken down, are pushed to small intestine and nutrients are absorbed. Unabsorbed and nonessential food materials are excreted out of the body. The nutrients are transported and distributed by the circulatory system to ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Body Composition Total views (184)  
The size and composition of the body is determined by the interaction between genetics & nutrition. When a human infant grows to become an adult, body weight increases about 20 - fold. Virtually all the material in the mass that has been gained entered the body by- way of food & drink (the exception being oxygen, some of which will have come from inspired air), & the material gained during intra-u ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Energy Metabolism Total views (185)  
Energy is the capacity to do work. A HEALTHY person is also ENERGETIC and usually enthusiastic. Where does this energy come from? A person who is well-fed appears to possess nearly unlimited energy whereas an inadequately fed person seems to be-tired all the time. Hence a person derives ENERGY from the FOOD he consumes.
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Proteins Total views (180)  
Proteins are macromolecules (large molecules) having molecular weights in the range of 10,000 to more than 106. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulphur and sometimes phosphorus. One of the important features of all proteins is that they contain about 16% nitrogen. Hence it serves as a convenient method for determining the protein content of a food: estimate the %Nin it ......
Pages: 15
Price: Rs 11.25   
 
Carbohydrates Total views (187)  
Plants Use energy from sunlight to synthesize carbohydrates from carbon di oxide & water with evolution of oxygen. The primary products are sugars, which are readily soluble in water & easily transported throughout the tissue fluid of both plants & animals to be metabolized in the cells. Sugars may be polymerized to form polysaccharides, some of which are not readily soluble in water. Carbohydrate ......
Pages: 21
Price: Rs 15.75   
 
Lipids Total views (180)  
The term lipid is applied to a group of substances which occur both in plant and animal kingdom. The main characteristics being that they do not dissolve in water but requires solvents such as ether and chloroform. Among the energy giving nutrients fats provide maximum energy. When you consume 1g of either carbohydrate or protein the body gets 4 calories but consuming Ig of fat body gets 9 calorie ......
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
 
Water and Electrolyte Balance Total views (185)  
The body's heed for water is second to that of oxygen. A person can mange without food for sometime but not without water. Loss of 10% water from the body causes risk but loss of 20% causes death. Water is the largest constituent of the body, about 60-70% of the total body weight consists of water. People who are lean will have more water compared with people who are obese. Men will have a higher ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Calcium and Phosphorus Total views (184)  
Among minerals calcium occurs in highest amounts in the body. About 99% of the calcium is present in the skeletal system and the remaining 1 % is present in soft tissues. The infant at birth contains about 27.5g of calcium while the adult will have about 1001-1200g of calcium. Calcium gets deposited in the bone during the growth of the body. Phosphorous accounts for about 1%of the body weight or o ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Sodium and Potassium Total views (183)  
The adult human body contains about 100g of sodium ion. About 50% of the body's sodium is present in extra cellular fluid, 40% in bone and 10% or less in intracellular fluid: Blood plasma contains 330mg% of sodium. The daily intake of sodium chloride which is called common salt varies from 5-20g. The intake of sodium from food sniffs ranges from 100-200 mg as the common foods are poor sources of c ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
 
Iron (Fe) Total views (181)  
Iron is an essential trace element involved in several vital functions in the body. There is about 4 gm of iron in the body of a healthy male and approximately 2.8g in a female. The iron-containing compounds in the body are grouped into 2 categories: functional iron & storage iron. About 75% of the body Fe is functional Fe, the majority of which is present in the hemoglobin of the red blood cells. ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Zinc and Selenium Total views (180)  
Zinc is a ubiquitous component of animal & plant tissues. Zinc is essential in the composition or function of over 70 enzymes involved indigestion & major metabolic pathways. Several dietary factors have been identified as potential promoters or inhibitors of zinc bioavailability. There are no suitable parameters to diagnose mild & moderate zinc deficiency. Severe deficiency of zinc occurs in chil ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Fluoride (F) Total views (181)  
Fluorine in the form of fluoride occurs in nature ubiquitously & enters the body as a variable constituent of both drinking water & food. Fluorine has been detected in trace amounts in all organs & tissues in humans, but studies have demonstrated that where diets are high in fluoride, its concentration in the body increases. On an average, the adulthlll11an contains less than 1g of fluorine, appro ......
Pages: 7
Price: Rs 5.25   
 
Magnesium, Manganese, Chromium, Copper Total views (180)  
In 1931 manganese was shown to be essential for growth & reproduction of rodents, & Mn deficiency was later found to be a practical problem in poultry &pig industries. Human manganese deficiency, is however rare. The average human contains 10 - 20 mg manganese, about 25% of which is found in the bone, the rest being uniformly distributed in the tissues. Manganese levels in plasma are very low, ran ......
Pages: 10
Price: Rs 7.5   
 
Vitamin A Total views (187)  
Vitamin A is the first vitamin which was discovered. The term vitamin A is used as a generic term for retinoid exhibiting the activity of retinal. Retinol is one of the most active or usable forms of vitamin A and is found in animal foods namely liver, eggs and milk. Pro vitamin A compounds or precursors of Vitamin A are abundantly present in plant materials and are called carotenoids. Beta carote ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 
Vitamin D Total views (186)  
You will be surprised to know that Whistler had recorded about rachitic symptoms (bow legs- bone disorders) in children as early as in 1645. In 1919, Huldschinsky reported that UV rays of sunlight were effective in healing rickets. Mellanby (1921) demonstrated that, the action of fats in lickets was due to a fat-soluble vitamin, and later it was called vitamin D. Here all about Vitamin D, starting ......
Pages: 9
Price: Rs 6.75   
 
Vitamin E Total views (187)  
There are eight naturally occurring vitamin E compounds, which are synthesized by plants. It is also widely available in synthetic form. The synthetic preparation is often used in the fortification of animal feeds and is available in capsules as a nutritional supplement. Visually vitamin E is a pale, yellow oils soluble in fats and fat-solvents. They are stable to heat and acids in the absence of ......
Pages: 6
Price: Rs 4.5   
 
Vitamin K Total views (186)  
Dam as early as 1929 observed unexpected hemorrhagic diseases in clucks. Later Dam identified this as deficiency of Vitamin K. It was named as Vitamin K because it was related to Koagulation of blood in german language. McFarlane 1931 revealed that defect in blood clotting was due to deficiency of Vitamin K. Later hemorrhagic disease was cured by vitamin K.
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
 
B-Complex Vitamins-Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin Total views (188)  
B- Complex vitamins comprise a diverse variety of water-soluble organic compounds which are required in minute amounts for normal growth mid bodily function. They are connected with many aspects of metabolism especially carbohydrate, hydrogen and electron transfer and are a part of coenzymes. The requirements of these vitamins vary with different animal species. The three major B-complex vitamins ......
Pages: 13
Price: Rs 9.75   
 
Folic Acid and Vitamin B12 Total views (187)  
Folacin is a generic term for compounds that have chemical structures and nutritional properties similar to those of folic acid (folate), which is also called pteroylglutamate or pteroylmonoglutamate. Both folate and vitamin B12 are necessary for the formation of normal RBC's. Vitamin B12 has two coenzyme forms which are involved in the conversion of homocysteine into methionine and L-meUlybnalony ......
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
 
Pyridoxine, Biotin and Pantothenic Acid Total views (188)  
Pyridoxine also known as vitamin B6 exists in three forms- pyridoxine, pyridoxamine and pyridoxal. After absorption it is converted to pyridoxidal phosphate (PLP) in liver and about 60% of PLP is found in the plasma. Pyridoxal phosphate, the coenzyme form of this vitamin is required for the metabolism of amino acids and conversion of tryptophan to nicotinic acid. It is also involved in the convers ......
Pages: 8
Price: Rs 6   
 
Ascorbic Acid Total views (187)  
James Lind in 1772 found that oranges and lemons prevented scurvy in sea sailors. Later it was known that a compound present in lemons could cure scurvy. Vitamin C is also known as ascorbic acid or ascorbate. It is an important water soluble vitamin. Human beings are not able to synthesize this vitamin due to lack of t an enzyme necessary in the vitamin C synthesis. Vitamin C is not evenly distrib ......
Pages: 11
Price: Rs 8.25   
 


 
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