After studying this module, students will be able to know the meaning and concept of sequencing. They will also be able to know about assumptions made in Sequencing Problems.

After studying this module, students will be able to know the processing of jobs through different number of Machines and travelling Salesman Problems.

After studying this unit, students will be in a position to understand replacement theory and know how to solve the replacement problems that deteriorates with time.

After studying this unit, students will be in a position to understand decision making and understand different Conditions under which decision are made.

Game theory is a branch of applied mathematics and economics that studies situations where players choose different actions in an attempt to maximize their returns. First developed as a tool for understanding economic behavior and then by the RAND Corporation to define nuclear strategies, game theory is now used in many diverse academic fields, ranging from biology and psychology to sociology and
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Operations research is a new branch of mathematics dealing with the optimization problems in real-life situations. It is also a quantitative technique to deal many management problems. In this discipline. We study cost minimization of various inventory problems, the minimization of transportation costs of sending goods from various warehouses to different centers. the profit maximization or cost m
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While solving an LP problem the situation may arise in which there is a tie between two or more basis variables for leaving the basis, i.e. the minimum ratio to identify the basis variable to leave the basis is not unique or the values of one or more basis variables in the solution values column (X8) becomes equal to zero. This causes the problem of degeneracy. However, if minimum ratio is zero,
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The Big-M method is another way of removing artificial variables from the basis. In this method, we assign coefficients to artificial variables, undesirable from the objective function point of view. If objective function Z is to be minimized then a very large' positive price (called penalty) is assigned to each artificial variable.

Associated with every linear programming problem there is another intimately related problem, called the dual problem of the original LP problem. The original LP problem is called the primal problem. According to the duality theorem:" For every maximization (or minimization) problem in linear programming, there is a unique similar problem of minimization (or maximization) involving the same data w
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The transportation problems deal with allocations. A company may have 'm' number of origins or the initial locations where the items are stored and 'n' ware houses or destinations where they have to be distributed. Then a question arises that from which origin one has to transport items to which location.

After obtaining a basic feasible solution to a given transportation problem, the next step is to derive an optimal solution. i.e., test has to be done to check whether the obtained solution is optimal or not. If the solution is not optimal a new solution is derived through iterations.

The best person for the job is an apt description of what the assignment model seeks to accomplish. The situation can be illustrated by assignment of workers to job, where any worker may undertake any job albeit with varying degrees of skill. A job that happens to match a worker's skill costs less than in which operator is not as skillful.

The traveling salesman problem (TSP) asks for the shortest route to visit a collection of cities and return to the starting point. The traveling sales man problems are unique type of problems in the assignment problem.

The study of waiting lines, called' queuing theory', is one of the oldest and most widely used Operations research techniques. The first recognized effort to analyze queues was made by Danish engineer, A.K. Erlang, in his attempts to eliminate bottlenecks created by telephone calls on switching circuits.

In a multiple- channel queuing system, two or more channels (or servers) are available to handle customers who arrive for service. It covers situations where, for example, there may be more than one runway at an airport for takeoff and landing, there may be more than one doctor in a hospital OPD whom the patients can visit, and there may be more than one teller in the bank.

A project such as construction of a bridge, highway, flyover, power plant, repair and maintenance of oil refineries or an air plane; design, development and marketing of a new product; research and development work, etc. may be defined as a collection of interrelated activities (tasks) which must be completed in a specified time according to a specified sequence (or order) and require resources su
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The objective of critical path analysis is to estimate the total project duration and to assign starting and finishing times to all the activities involved in the project. This helps in checking actual progress against the scheduled duration of the project.

PERT (Programme Evaluation and Review Technique) is essentially a management technique and if tailored properly, can be used with advantage for responsibility accounting in addition to attaining other well defined objectives. Managers have found this technique for immense value where adopted judiciously and when configuration of events and activities are correctly assessed and their times are real
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